句型五种,组词成句原理之专题一:五种基本句型详解

一.五种基础句型概述

1.什么是基础句型?基础句型,是指没有润饰成分的、正常语序的简略陈说句。这个定义有四层含义:①简略句,是指不是并列句和复合句。②陈说句,是指不是疑问句、祈使句和感慨句。③没有润饰成分,是指没有定语和状语等。④正常语序,是指没有倒装与省略。

其余各种句型及长难句都是由基础句型转换或扩大来的。也就是说,在学习“并列句/复合句”“疑问句/感慨句/祈使句”“倒装句和省略句”等内容时,都应当还原到基础句型。

2.学习基础句型的要害是抓住动词:五种基础句型的不同,根源于五种动词的不同,反过来说,五种动词可以扩大为相应的五种基础句型。如下图所示,

注:1.双及物动词即“跟双宾语的及物动词”,复合及物动词即“跟复合宾语的及物动词”。2.关于动词分类的更多内容,可参看第五章第一节。

3.五种基础句型的细分表。见下表, ★此表超级主要

注:有些书把there be句型单列为一种基础句型。本书以为,there be句型是由主系表句型的倒装句演化而来的,详见第十二章第二节讲授。

下边详细讲授此表。在五种基础句型中,第Ⅰ和Ⅴ种基础句型较难控制(许多语法书没有把这两种句型讲明白),第Ⅱ/Ⅲ/Ⅳ种基础句型容易控制。学习第Ⅰ和Ⅴ种基础句型的要害是把它们分辨细分为两类。

二.主系表(SVC)句型分为两类

系动词分为静态系动词(be)和动态系动词(除be外)。相应地,“主系表”句型,也分为两种讲授。其中,最典范的“主系表”是“主语+be+形容词”。见下表,

1. 静态系动词,可以跟形容词作表语,也可以跟名词、副词等其它词/短语/从句作表语。如,

●He is strong.(形容词作表语) ●He is strong.(形容词作表语) ●He is here.(副词作表语) ●He is at home.(介词短语作表语)

2. 动态系动词,一般只能跟形容词作表语,少数可以跟名词作表语。如,

少数可以跟名词。如,become a teacher,remain friends。

对照: 动态系动词,一般只能跟形容词,不能跟名词/副词。如果跟了名词/副词,一般不是动态系动词。

●get,在get warm (adj.)中,get是系动词;在get there (adv.)中,get是实义动词。

●taste,在It tastes good (adj.).中,taste是系动词;在Please taste the wine (n.).中,taste是实义动词。

3. 如何辨认系动词呢?一般地,若有“某动词+形容词”,则某动词是系动词。

●The sun is rising.太阳正在升起。(rising是动词 (v-ing),可知is不是系动词(是助动词))

●Stay silent!坚持宁静。(从silent是形容词,可知stay是系动词。)

●He looks happy (adj.).(主系表)。(对照:He shouted loudly (adv.). 主语+谓语+状语)

例外:此规矩的唯一例外情形是:“主语+个别不及物动词+形容词”。如,She died (vi.) young (adj.).这个句子是She died (when she was) young.的省略。

三.主谓(SV)和主谓宾(SVO)句型的对照

第Ⅱ种基础句型是:主谓(vi.)。第Ⅲ种基础句型是:主谓(vt.)宾。

在五种基础句型中,最典范的是“主谓宾”,大约80%的句子是“主谓宾”构造。

这两种句型,要害在于不及物动词(vi.)和及物动词(vt.)。注意英汉的及物性差别。

下边详细讲授此表。

1. 极少数动词,只能作不及物动词。如,come, go, sleep, travel。

注意:有些动词,在英语中是不及物动词,在汉语中是及物动词。在这些不及物动词后不要少了介词。

●听音乐:listen to the music (listen the music×)

●讥笑某人:laugh at sb. (laugh sb.×)

●达到某地:arrive (vi.) in/at +某地。(对照:达到某地:reach (vt.) +某地)

●等候某人:wait (vi.) for sb. (对照:等候某人:await (vt.) sb.)

2. 极少数动词,只能作及物动词。如,find(发明),offer(供给),seat(坐下)。

注意:有些动词,在英语中是及物动词,在汉语中是不及物动词。在这些不及物动词后不要多了介词。

●跟在某人后边:follow sb.(follow after sb. ×)

●为…服务:serve sb. (serve for sb. ×)

●和…结婚:marry sb.(marry with sb. ×)

●有个老外报属相时说:“我属于猪”(×),应为“我属猪”。

●I guessed his meaning. 我猜出了他的意思。

(I guessed out (adv.) his meaning.(×),可译为“我猜出出他的意思”)

3. 绝大多数动词,既能作不及物动词,又能作及物动词。如,

●They are playing (vi.) on the playground. They are playing (vt.) football.

●read (vi.) loudly (adv.) 大声朗读。 read (vt.) a book (n.) 读书。

●Time flies (vi.). 时光飞逝。 fly (vt.) a kite 放风筝。

注意:有些动词,作不及物动词和及物动词时的词义不同。

●play 玩(不及物);弹奏(及物)。

●help 有用(不及物);辅助(及物)。

●rain 下雨(不及物);使大批落下(及物)。

●apply 申请(不及物);应用(及物)。

●stand 站立(不及物);忍耐(及物)。

四.主谓双宾(SVOO)句型分为两类

第Ⅳ种基础句型是:主语+谓语+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语(物)。

直接宾语和间接宾语,合称双宾语。

1.什么是直接宾语和间接宾语?表现人的是间接宾语,表现物的是直接宾语。因为,甲把东西给乙:甲→东西→乙,所以,对甲来说,“东西”是直接的,是直接宾语;“乙”是间接的(是通过“东西”才间接地接触上的),是间接宾语。如,

●He gave me the book.(me表人,是间接宾语;the book表物,是直接宾语。)

注意,直接/间接宾语,只与表人还是表物有关,与单词在句子中的前后地位无关。如,

●He gave the book to me.(me表人,是间接宾语,the book表物,是直接宾语。)

2.“主谓双宾”,可以转换为“主谓宾+介词短语(to型或for型等)”。重要分为两类:

①“动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”→“动词+直接宾语+to+间接宾语”。

这些动词有:give/offer,hand/pass,buy/sell,lend,leave,pay,show,teach,tell等。

●I showed Jim the map.→I showed the map to Jim.

②“动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”→“动词+直接宾语+for+间接宾语”。

这些动词有:build,call,cook,make,order,sing等。

●Linda cooked the teacher a good dinner.→Linda cooked a good dinner for the teacher.

五.主谓复宾(SVOC)句型分为两类

第Ⅴ种基础句型是:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语。宾语+宾语补足语=复合宾语。

1.哪些动词可以带复合宾语?

最常见的带复合宾语的十个动词是:四看三使役,二听一感到。四看:observe,notice,see,watch;三使役:make,let,have;二听:hear,listen;一感到:feel。

2.宾语补足语,可以分为两类:

(1)名词/形容词/副词/介词短语,作宾语补足语。这些宾补是由“(主)系表”转换来的。

①转换方式:随着“主语”变为“宾语”,“表语(也叫主语补足语)”变为“宾语补足语”。

●I am happy.(主语+系动词+表语)→

●He makes me happy.(主语+谓语+宾语+宾补)(转换进程剖析:随着“主语I→宾语me”,“表语(也叫主语补足语)happy→宾语补足语happy”。省略无意义的am。)

②正是因为“(主系)表”→宾补,所以,可以作表语的单词或短语都可以作宾补。如,

●They called their daughter Mary.他们给女儿取名玛丽。(名词作宾补)

●I found him friendly.我发明他很友爱。(形容词作宾补)。

●Don’t leave me behind.别把我留下。(副词作宾补)

●He put his books in order.他把书收拾好了。(介词短语作宾补)

(2)非谓语动词短语,作宾语补足语。这些宾补是由“(主)谓宾”转换来的。

转换方式:把动词短语变为非谓语动词短语。具体进程是:统一变为不定式(to do),如果呈现to be则省略之。(注:上边的(1)也可以看作统一变为不定式(to do),然后把“to be+表语”省略为“表语”)。如,

●Lucy asked him to turn down the radio.(不定式短语作宾补)

((he) turned down the radio→(him) to turn down the radio)

●I heard Tom singing a song.(v-ing短语作宾补)

((Tom) is singing a song.→(Tom) (to be) singing a song。省略to be)

●He watched the piano carried upstairs. 他看着钢琴被搬上楼。(v-ed短语作宾补)

((the piano) was carried upstairs→(the piano) (to be) carried upstairs。省略to be)

有人可能感到“统一变为to do,然后呈现to be则省略之”的这种讲授真是多此一举。答:在后续第七章讲授非谓语动词作宾补时,许多的难解问题就要靠这句话进行说明呢。

六.基础句型的扩大

英语句子是由基础句型及其扩大而形成的。具体地,①基础句型:动词→动词短语(→基础句型)。②基础句型的扩大:增添三成分(定语/状语/同位语);增添三构造(介短/非谓动短/从句)。

这两步可称为横向组合和纵向调换(分辨相当于物理学中的串联和并联电路)。①以动词为核心,把四种词性(名词/动词/形容词/副词)串联在一起。②依照词性雷同原则,把名词性/形容词性/副词性的单词,分辨调换为名词性/形容词性/副词性的短语或从句。就像数学公式一样,循环应用这些扩大和转换,就由基础句型发生了各种各样的句子以及所谓的长难句。

下边讲基础句型的扩大。

基础句型的扩大的原理:依照词性雷同原则,把名词性/形容词性/副词性的单词,分辨调换为名词性/形容词性/副词性的短语或从句。

例句(名词/动词/形容词/副词单词扩大为名词/动词/形容词/副词短语)

●It was cold.→The weather has been very cold just recently.

●The nations are friends.→The neighbouring nations have long been our close friends.

例句(名词性短语或从句作主语/宾语)

●Reading French is easier than speaking it.读法语比讲容易。(v-ing作主语)

●What she saw gave her a little fright.她看到的情形使她有点吃惊。(what从句作主语)

●Would you mind waiting a few minutes?能否劳驾等几分钟?(v-ing作宾语)

●I don’t care what they say.我不在乎他们说了什么。(what从句作宾语)

例句(形容词性短语或从句作定语)

●Who is that girl with a pigtail?那个梳辫子的女孩是谁?(介词短语作定语)

●I have sth important to discuss with you.我有要事相商。(不定式短语作定语)

●She is a girl everyone likes.她是个人人都爱好的女孩。(that从句作定语)

例句(副词性短语或从句作状语)

●He travelled in the desert for six months.他在沙漠里走了六个月。(介词短语作状语)

●The suitcase is too heavy to be carried by a child.箱子太重小孩拿不动(不定式短语作成果状语)

●It being a holiday,the library is not open.

今天是假日,图书馆不开门(含v-ing的独立主格构造作原因状语)

综合例句(基础句型的扩大)

●从太空拍摄的照片展现了人类的力气在地球表面上所带来的转变。

翻译进程:①pictures show the changes(基础句型)→②Pictures taken from space show the changes that human forces have brought about on the earth’s surface. (基础句型的扩大)

●中国总理高度赞赏了非洲共同组织在辅助非洲国度博得民族独立和获得政治解放当中所作出的重大贡献。

翻译进程:①Chinese premier praised the contribution (基础句型)。→②Chinese premier highly praised the significant contribution of Africa Union in helping African countries to win their national independence and political liberation. (基础句型的扩大)

分组对照练习

题组(分辨下划线的动词是系动词还是实义动词)

1. The door stays open at night.

2. Just stay here for a moment.

3. He tasted the food, and the food tasted delicious.

4. What he said proved true.

5. He can’t proved his theory.

题组(指出划线部分是及物动词还是不及物动词)

1. My watch stopped.

2. The baby stopped crying when he saw his mother.

3. Shall I begin at once?

4. She began working as a teacher after she left school.

5.When did they leave Beijing?

6.They left last week.

题组(用下划线标出下列句子中的宾语)。考核第Ⅲ种基础句型。

1. People all over the world speak English.

2. Jim cannot dress himself.

3. He just wanted to stay at home.

4. He practices speaking English every day.

5. He did not know what to say.

6. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy.

题组(翻译句子,并指出间接宾语和直接宾语)。考核第Ⅳ种基础句型。

1. I showed him my pictures.

2. She ordered herself a new dress.

3. She cooked her husband a delicious meal.

4. He brought you a dictionary.

5. I told him that the bus was late.

6. He showed me how to run the machine.

题组(翻译句子,并指出“什么词性作宾补”)。考核第Ⅴ种基础句型。

1. We elected him monitor.

2. They painted the door green.

3. We saw him out.

4. He asked me to come back soon.

5. I saw them getting on the bus.

6. I’ll have my bike repaired.

题组(把两个句子组合成一个句子)。考核第Ⅴ种基础句型。

1. The members elected Alice. She’s president now.

The members elected Alice president.

2. The theory is wrong. Someone has proved that.

Someone has proved the theory wrong.

3. We’ve painted the walls. They’re bright yellow now.

We’ve painted the walls bright yellow.

题组(用不同的谓语动词翻译下列句子)。综合考核Ⅴ种基础句型。

1.这家具花了我500美元。①I paid $500 for the furniture.②I bought the furniture for $500.③I spent $500 on the furniture.④I spent $500 in buying the furniture.⑤The furniture cost me $500.⑥It cost me $500 to buy the furniture.

2.他们经常参观那个博物馆。①They often visit the museum.②They are the frequent visitors to visit the museum.

3.非常感激你斟酌我的申请。①I’ll thank you if you think about my application. ②I will appreciate it that if you take my application into consideration.